Island Rule

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Island Rule states how animals change in response to being isolated in island environments. Many flying animals also become flightless to conserve energy. New Zealand’s Kākāpō, the world’s only flightless parrot, or the extinct dodo bird are examples of this. Small animals evolve larger on islands when isolated from their predators. In contrast, large animals evolve smaller in response to limited food supply. This specimen of a dwarf Elephas native to Sicily and Malta shows a large bodied animal that has evolved smaller due to Island Rule.

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